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Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) is the analysis of systems including fluid flow, mass transfer, and heat transfer and associated phenomena, such as chemical reactions, based on numerical computational techniques. In other words, in CFD's view, the mass, energy, and momentum conservation equations are solved with Continuity and pressure equations and source terms specific to each of the powerful computational techniques. Since the 1960s, the aerospace industry has used the CFD approach for designing aircraft engines. In the last decade, the CFD technique has been used to design internal combustion engines and combustion chambers for gas turbines and furnaces. With the rapid development of hardware and equipment, numerical computing is nowadays, along with empirical theories and experiments, a useful research tool for the development of combustion knowledge and is effectively applied to design combustion systems, so that today it is impossible to develop new designs without using it.
1- High-Performance Computing (HPC)
In many cases, such as computational fluids dynamics (CFDs), conventional and multi-core computers are not capable of performing bulky and complex processing operations. In the science of rapid computing, with the accumulation of computing power of multiple computers (tens or even thousands of computers), a supercomputer is built, thus modeling and simulating complex processes is done in the shortest time and with the highest productivity.
2- Fluid-Structure Interaction (FSI)
Fluid-structure interactions (FSI) is one of the practical applications of mechanical engineering in which the interaction of fluid flow and solid structure on each other is studied. FSI problems can be analyzed in two ways: fully coupled and staggered. In the Fully coupled method, the structures and fluid domains are solved simultaneously while in a staggered manner this is done individually.
In the field of optimization, we try to find the best and most efficient output of the system (target function) by changing inputs (design variables). The main goal of the optimization process is to maximize or minimize the selected target function. Today, there are various ways to optimize problems such as genetic algorithm, neural network, fuzzy logic, particle swarm algorithm (PSO), and ant colony algorithm.
4- Combustion and Reacting Flow
In the last decade, due to the growth of computer processing power and the development of CFD knowledge, the simulation of combustion processes has expanded. Even in calm conditions, combustion is an inherently complex phenomenon that encompasses a wide range of longitudinal and time scales. Turbulent combustion emanates from the interaction of turbulence and combustion. The heat released from combustion at the flame front determines the acceleration of the current, resulting in a flame-induced turbulence.
5- Multiple Flow
Understanding multiphase flows are important because of their emergence in industrial processes. For example, in pumps, the phenomenon of cavitation, which is one of the destructive factors in this equipment, is directly related to the two-phase flow. Awareness of multiphase flow processes is inevitable in large catalytic fluidized bed crackers as well as in chemical reactors. The three main ways for modeling multiphase currents are the volume of fluid (VOF), Ulri-Lagrangian and Ulri-Ulri.
6- Heat transfer
Heat transfer mechanisms can be classified into three classes of conduction, convection and radiation modes. Air conditioning equipment, computer cooling circuits, heat exchangers, radiators, cooling towers, boilers, and ovens all operate in accordance with the principles of heat transfer science. Due to the wide range of heat transfer processes, proper identification and modeling of these processes are necessary. It should be noted that heat transfer and fluid mechanics are often used together, and hence the analysis of heat transfer processes is one of the most important tasks of the mechanical engineers of the fluid.
7- Renewable Energy
Environmental crises increased greenhouse gas emissions, and the end of fossil fuels such as oil and gas and coal has led to the focus on renewable energy such as wind energy, solar energy, geothermal energy, wave’s energy Biomass energy and hydroelectric power. Scandinavian countries such as Iceland, Norway, and Denmark are among the leading countries in the use of renewable energy.
During the smooth flow, fluid layers slide on each other slowly and regularly. By increasing the Reynolds number and going beyond the critical Reynolds number, there is a disorder and instability in fluid behavior. One of the important characteristics of the turbulent flow is the formation of small and large vortex structures, which exhibit oscillatory and three-dimensional behavior. The irregular behavior of turbulent flow causes the RAS, LES, and DNS disturbance to be used to model it.